Transmission Electron Microscope | TEM

Working Principles: A transmission electron microscope fires a beam of electrons through a specimen to produce a magnified image of an object. TEM working flows. A high-voltage electricity supply powers the cathode. The cathode is a heated filament, a bit like the electron gun in an old-fashioned cathode-ray tube (CRT) TV. It generates a beam … Read more

Scanning Electron Microscope | SEM

Working Principles: Produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. Electrons from the beam hit the surface of the sample and bounce off it as the secondary electron, backscattered electron etc. A detector registers these scattered electrons and turns them into a picture. SEM Working flows. Electrons are … Read more

X-RAY Powder Diffractometer | XRD

Working Principles: X-rays are collimated and directed onto the sample. As the sample and detector are rotated, the intensity of the reflected X-rays is recorded. When the geometry of the incident X-rays impinging the sample satisfies the Bragg Equation, constructive interference and a peak in intensity occur. A detector records and processes this X-ray signal … Read more