Weaving is a method to produce fabrics by the right angle interlacement of 2 sets of yarn –named as warp [longitudinal direction or length-wise direction] and weft [transverse direction or width-wise direction]. In this article, A-Z of producing the woven fabrics from swatch to the finished fabric delivery has been precisely outlined. Let’s see how to progress an order for a particular style of fabric.
Woven fabric development flow chart is as follows:
Market inquiry by the marketing department
Swatch collected by the marketing team
Swatch sends to the R&D department for analysis
Swatch analysis to find out the construction and prepare the construction for a definite fabric width (may be according to buyer requirement or depending upon yarn used and loom facility)
The marketing team negotiates with the buyer about the price
Sample development (If price negotiated with buyer and buyer interested for sample)
Sample submitted to the buyer
Buyer sends production order (PO)/ Confirmation (If sample accepted by him)
Swatch analysis: Finished construction: (20×16)/(112×72) x 64”
Finding Grey construction and co-ordinate the grey construction with factory facility:
👉Grey ends: 112×0.95=106.4 ~106 (considering 5% shrinkage i.e. warp crimp)
👉Grey pick: 72×0.95=68.4~68 (considering 5% shrinkage i.e. weft crimp)
👉Grey width= (64×112/106)=68”
So, the grey construction: (20×16)/(106×68)x68” Weave design: 3/1 Right Hand Twill (RHT)
No. of Loom available
Available loom width
Available Reed count:
If 3/dent is ordered then the required reed count for the above construction is: (106/3)x2=35.6×2=71~72
Creel capacity Flanged diameter of warp beam, which determine the capacity of warp beam
Drying Cylinder width
If a factory facilitates to develop the desired fabric and price negotiate with the buyer then we go for sample development.
👉Consumption for sample production:
Warp length=500yds (140m warp length is sizing waste, where 120m warp remain in the sizing machine and 20m in the pre-beam and between the pre-beam and first end of the sizing machine)
Warp crimp and shrinkage=12%
Weft crimp and shrinkage=12%
Required warp wt.
Required weft wt.
Flow chart for sample production:
Send to buyer for approval
Sample approved and PO order to be sent to the manufacturer
PO order details
👉PO order quantity=50000m
👉Lead time=45 days
After receiving the order:
Consumption calculation for bulk production
Arrangement of capital
Procurement of yarn
Preparation for weaving
1. Consumption Calculation:
Fabric construction: (20×16)/(112×72)x64”
Ordered length: 50,000 m
So, Fabric length of (50000±5%) m must be accepted by the buyer & should be noted in the agreement.
Required warp wt.:
Required weft wt.
50KG of a Bag having 24 cones
Need to purchase:
Warp yarn (11852.52/50) bags=237.04 bags~238bags i.e. 11900KG~12 ton
Weft Yarn (9524.3/50) bags=190.486 bags~191 bags i.e. 9550 KG~10 ton
2. Capital Requirement:
Raw Material Cost:
Processing cost includes material processing cost, labor wages, administrative cost, depreciation cost, utility cost i.e. all costs beyond the raw material cost.
👉Total capital required =Raw material cost + processing cost
=85,00,000 TK.~ 1 Croc TK.
3. Arrangement of the Capital:
Capital should be arranged through bank. Some bank are interested to offer money against the master L/C. This is one type of loan and the loaned amount will be deducted from the money of master L/C when it will be made cash. Sometimes loan are arranged by submitting land as morgue in bank.
4. Procurement of yarn
The weaver may arrange the monitoring of yarn quality during spinning by their quality controller. That insures best quality of yarn and uniform quality of yarn. Procurement is done to insure yarn quality as well as fabric quality because fabric quality stands on yarn quality.
5. Preparation for weaving
Grey construction: (20×16)/(106×68)x68”
Weave design: 3/1 RHT
Reed count: 72
Lead time: 25 days
Loom Speed (PPM): 750
👉Production per day: (750x60x24x.8)/(68×39.37) m
=4841m per loom
👉Production per hour: 202m per loom
Required warp length for producing 50000m fabric= 50,000×1.12=56000m
Where, warp crimp is 5% and Warp shrinkage is 7%
No. of Looms required= (560000/4841)=11.57~15
No. of Reed of 72 count is 15
No. of droppers 112x64x15=107520~110000
No. of Heald wire= 110000
No. of Heald frame= 4 (for 3/1 twill)+2 (for selvedge) =6 per loom
Total heald frame required=6×15=90
Total no. of warp=112×64=7168
Total warp required=7168+20=7188
Creel capacity of the warping machine=750
No. of pre-beam to be produced=7188/750=9.584~10
No. of warp on each beam=7188/10=718.8~719
Creel capacity utilization= (719/750×100)%=95.87%~96%
Total No. of warp=719×10=7190
Required length of warp to produce 50000m fabric
Extra warp length:
- Yarn left on the sizing machine=140m for each set. For sizing 56000m warp at least two set is required, because warper’s beam capacity is 20000m~30000m. warp left in the sizing machine=140x2m=280m
- Initial and residual warp on each weaver’s beam is (5m+5m)=10m. Capacity of weaver’s beam is 1500m~2000m, so almost 15 weaver’s beam is required for each set. Total Initial and residual warp=15x10x2=300m
- First meter fabric is required for quality analysis from each loom. Total first meter warp=1x15x2m=30m
Total extra warp length required=(280+300+30)=610m
Allowance for quality inspection is 2% and total=50000×2%m=1000m
Actual required warp length=(56000+610+1000)m=57610m
Note: If different yarn is used across the fabric width, then special care should be taken during warping.
No. of weaver’s beam and length on each beam calculation:
Capacity of warper’s beam 20000m~30000m (depending upon the yarn count and sett of warp)
For the above construction say capacity of warper’s beam is 30000m
No. of warper’s beam required for completing 56280m length
No. of sett=2
Length of warp on each beam is (57610/2)=28805m
No. of pre-beam required per sett=10
Total no of pre-beam=10×2=20 of 28805m length
Size composition depends on the range of yarn count and range of warp sett.
From 20 Ne ~16 Ne same size composition
From 110~112 EPI same size composition
- To reduce sizing wastage, the Fabric within the yarn count range and warp sett range should be plan at a time i.e. one after another. We can use the sizing recipe for that range which will make sizing process more economical.
- To complete the above construction we have to make 2 sets of warper’s beam, 10 beams of each set. But after completing 10 pre-beam we have to start sizing process. Other 10 beams for another set is then on the warping machine.
- In the weaver’s beam warp length is 1500~2000m depending upon the flange dia, sized yarn count and sett of warp.
- No. of final beam produced from each set=(28805/2000)=14.40~15
- Sizing waste is 140m, so actual length on each final beam=(28805-140)/15m=1911m
Wastage in weaving:
At the beginning i.e. initial wastage for gating the warp through the loom, 5m and
At the end i.e. residual wastage on the final beam, 5m
Again warp crimp is 5%
Then actual meter of Grey fabric produced from each weaver’s beam= (1911-5-5)x0.95m=1806m
Total grey fabric produced from each set=1806x15m=27090m
From two set total grey fabric=27090x2m=54180m
First meter grey fabric from each loom is collected and sent it to the quality analysis department to ensure grey fabric as well as finished fabric quality also find out the shrinkage and skewness of the twill fabric.
Total grey fabric collected from two sets=1x15x2m=30m
Actual grey fabric we have from two sets=(54180-30)m=54150m
To complete the production 15 loom is required. It should be noted that 15 loom cannot be run within one day. We can run about 3 looms in one day.
Looming time is 4 hrs.
Need to produce 54150m
If warp shrinkage is 7% then we get finished fabric from the above grey fabric
We have considered that 1000m fabric may rejected due to not fulfilling the quality requirements then,
Actual delivered quantity=(50360-1000)m=49360m
The quantity lies within the allowance range i.e.±5%
Remarks: Form above discussion we came to know about weave plan of weaving factory.